THE BROKEN CHAINS OF TUḤFAT AL-AṬFĀL

One of the earliest manuscripts of Tuhfat ul Atfal, from the al-Azhar Library Collection 385/29810.

One of the earliest manuscripts of Tuhfat ul Atfal, from the al-Azhar Library Collection 385/29810.

A Closer Look at the Historical Transmission of this Popular Text

pdfdThe poem Tuḥfat al-Aṭfāl, authored by the Egyptian scholar Sulaymān Ḥusayn al-Jamzūrī [died circa 1198AH/1783-4CE], has been memorized, taught and kept alive by countless individuals since its authorship more than two centuries ago, making it the single most utilized resource for learning Tajweed to this day. Since that time, it has continued to be transmitted in the traditional manner, in the line of great classical works of Islamic learning, complete with formal authorization (ijāzah) and chains of transmission (isnād) tracing the line of one’s teachers back to the author. These documents exist across the Muslim world in various shapes and forms, handwritten, transcribed and sometimes even oral; at times free-standing and sometimes as part of larger written works.

Despite its great popularity as a traditional text, however, the chain of transmission of Tuḥfat al-Aṭfāl to the author remains problematic for a variety of reasons. We simply don’t know a whole lot about the author. Although he left behind a small number of surviving works, it is not entirely clear when he passed away. Traditionally, the year of death has always provided a convenient method of identifying and classifying Muslim scholars. We do know from the record that he was born around 1160H, corresponding to the year 1747 of the Gregorian calendar, and from the Tuḥfat al-Aṭfāl text itself (verse 59) that it was written in 1198H/1783-4 CE. Some early writings indicate that he was teaching as late as the year 1227H. Beyond that, there exists no clear documented record of students who transmitted from al-Jamzūrī by way of Ijāzah—neither the Qurʾān nor any of his own texts including the Tuḥfah. As far as we know today, there is no surviving isnād of the Qurʾān that extends through him, nor an isnād of any other text—apart from the Tuḥfah—that reaches him. This is more perplexing keeping in mind that al-Jamzūrī was a conventional scholar who spent his life teaching the Qurʾān and its related sciences in the traditional manner, which was always based upon chains of transmission.

Moreover, the current isnāds of the text contain some seemingly contradictory details which raise further concerns for discerning scholars of transmission. Many of these chains go back to al-Jamzūrī through individuals about whom questions have been raised, while others simply go to an intermediary some generations below al-Jamzūrī and close with the general expression “and through his chain to the author.”[1]

For these reasons and others, most Qurʾānic scholars have considered the circulating chains of Tuḥfat al-Aṭfāl today to be disconnected (in ḥadīth terminology, munqaṭiʿ) and thus, not very strong from the perspective of transmission. Every teacher I personally received this text from, for instance, confirmed this same impression to me, including Shaykh Saad Ḥassanin and Shaykh Tawfīq ʿAlī Nuḥās. There have also been efforts on the part of various researchers to uncover the exact nature of this transmission and prove its continuity, but nothing has been produced to date that has been irrefutably convincing to everyone.

Nevertheless, most scholars have still allowed—and even participated in—the transmission of this text by way of isnād, for the purposes of maintaining the continuity of this living tradition and the dissemination of this vital knowledge. Since this is neither the Qurʾān nor a Prophetic ḥadīth, some degree of laxity has been allowed in the entire matter. An incomplete chain is better than no chain at all. And so the text had remained alive today.

It must be noted, also, that because of the decentralized nature of Islamic learning and transmission, isnād studies lend themselves to constant revision based upon historical research, ongoing discovery of Islamic manuscripts and examination of personal isnāds of individuals throughout the Muslim world. I have no doubt that we are bound to hear more on this matter from Qurʾānic scholars in the hopefully not so distant future.

To make sense of the state of current and future research on this issue, a brief historical survey is in order. There are a number of characters in the story of al-Jamzūrī who are key to understanding this entire matter.[2]

 

The Teacher

The most important figure is the teacher of al-Jamzūrī himself: Shaykh Nūr al-Dīn al-Mīhī (d. 1204H/1789CE). His full name was Nūr al-Dīn ʿAlī b. ʿUmar b. Aḥmad b. ʿUmar b. Nājī b. Funaysh al-ʿAwnī al-Manūfī al-Shāfiʿī al-Mīhī, although in some sources his name is incorrectly given as ʿAlī b. ʿAlī b. Aḥmad b. ʿUmar. Also the name Funaysh (فنيش) incorrectly appears as Qays (قيس) in some documents, which upon examination is obviously an error of mistranscription of the Arabic script.

In the very opening passage of the text (verse 4), al-Jamzūrī praises his teacher and, as a gesture of humility, attributes to him the source of the material of his own text. The praise is immense to the extent of inviting criticism from commentators for being excessive, an indication of the great esteem and respect the student had for the teacher.

سَـمَّـيـتُهُ بِتُـحفَـةِ الأطْفَـالِ

عَنْ شَيـخِنَا المِيهِيِّ ذِى الكَمَالِ

I have resolved to title it the Children’s Bequest,

relating from our shaykh al-Meehī, masterful, adept.

Born in 1139H, Shaykh Nūr al-Dīn al-Mīhī was a well-known Azharī scholar of his time who does feature prominently in Qurʾānic isnāds today. He happened to be blind and was known for his tremendous humility and piety in addition to his learning. The ascription al-Mīhī indicates his origin from the village of Almay (الماي) in the Manūfiyyah district of Egypt, not far from the hometown of al-Jamzūrī. A graduate of the renowned al-Azhar University, he spent his life teaching in various institutions across the region, eventually settling in the city of Ṭanṭā until he passed away in 1204H. There are some isnāds, including that of the renowned reciter Maḥmūd Khalīl al-Ḥuṣarī, that indicate his date of death as 1229H, having lived a lifespan of ninety years.[3]

Some Qurʾānic scholars are of the opinion that the chain of Tuḥfat al-Aṭfāl is contiguous to the teacher of al-Jamzūrī, which is by no means problematic given the fact that the author himself attributes the material to the teacher, an indication that he invariably must have read or presented it to the teacher.

 

The Teacher’s Sons

What complicates matters further is the fact that the teacher had at least two sons who were associated with al-Jamzūrī and his text in some way. Much less is known about the first son, Muḥammad al-Mīhī al-Aḥmadī, than his father Nūr al-Dīn or his father’s student al-Jamzūrī. The son authored an extant commentary on the Tufah entitled Fat al-Malik al-Mutaʿāl bi Shar Tufat al-Afāl, which clearly indicates that he was an associate of al-Jamzūrī. In this commentary, Muḥammad al-Mīhī lavishly praises the author by referring to him as “the righteous brother, the successful expert, one who was surrounded by divine help, our master Mawlānā Sulaymān al-Affendī.”[4] His use of the term brother (al-akh) suggests that their relationship was that of peers and colleagues rather than that of teacher-student.

Because they share the same last name/ascription (al-Mīhī), many sources tend to obscure the teacher and son. It is not clear when the son passed away, but his date of death is sometimes given as 1204H (the same as that of his father), which is an obvious error based upon this same confusion.

Shaykh al-Jamzūrī himself wrote a commentary on his own poem, which he entitled Fatḥ al-Aqfāl bi Shar Tufat al-Afāl, in which he admits that he borrowed mostly from a similar commentary written by this son of his teacher Muḥammad al-Mīhī.[5] Both have abundant praise for each other in their respective works.

Although this son is relevant to our narrative, I have not personally come across any chains of the Tufah that mention him by name in any of their links.

Many isnāds, including some of my own, include the name of a second son to the teacher—named Muṣṭafā b. ʿAlī al-Mīhī—as receiving the text from al-Jamzūrī. He is generally described the son of Shaykh ʿAlī al-Mīhī and brother to the commentator on the Tuḥfah (i.e. the first son Muḥammad al-Mīhī). Little else is known about him, including when he died. Since his brother was clearly a colleague and his father a teacher of al-Jamzūrī, his receiving the text from al-Jamzūrī is not at all implausible. His name also features prominently in some Qurʾānic isnāds.

 

A Third al-Mīhī ?

Other chains go back to an individual listed as Aḥmad al-Mīhī from al-Jamzūrī, but there is no clear record of any such family member. Is he a mistaken reference to the teacher or one of his sons? Most probably it’s a reference to the teacher since his full name does include Aḥmad at some point (ʿAlī b. ʿUmar b. Aḥmad), although that could plausibly apply to either son as well.

 

al-Hūrīnī: The Only True Student ?

The most intriguing person for many researchers is Naṣr al-Hūrīnī (d. 1291H/1874CE), another Egyptian Azharī scholar whose full name was Abuʾl-Wafāʾ Naṣr b. al-Shaykh Naṣr Yūnus al-Wafāʾī al-Hūrīnī. A specialist in linguistics and Arabic grammar, he was sent by the Egyptian government to France to serve as an imam for a period of time, where he learned French and served the Muslim community. He authored a number of works, including al-Maṭāliʿ al-Naṣriyyah (المطالع النصرية) on the principles of Arabic writing and a critical edition as well as commentary of al-Fayrūzābādī’s renowned dictionary.

In his al-Maṭāliʿ al-Naṣriyyah, he refers to al-Jamzūrī as “our shaykh” and references a fine grammatical point to what he saw in al-Jamzūrī’s notes to his own commentary and poem during al-Hūrīnī’s visit to the Aḥmadī Mosque around 1227H, a point which was personally confirmed by al-Jamzūrī in his lessons.[6] This establishes that al-Jamzūrī was teaching as late as 1227H, some thirty years after he authored Tufat al-Afāl, and that al-Hūrīnī was attending his teaching circles on Tufat al-Afāl. It is thus fairly certain that al-Hūrīnī studied this text from the author, if not in its entirety, then at least partially. There are some chains of the Tuḥfah today that extend to al-Jamzūrī through al-Hūrīnī, and for this reason many scholars consider these chains to be stronger and more connected.

An Intermediary

Many chains, perhaps the majority of them, stop at an individual named Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Mutawallī and end with the words “and with his well-known chain to al-Jamzūrī.”

Born in 1248H/1832CE in Cairo, his full name was Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. al-Ḥasan b. Sulaymān. After memorizing the Qurʾān, he completed his studies at al-Azhar and specialized in the Qurʾānic readings, quickly surpassing his peers and colleagues and earning the titles Ibn al-Jazarī al-Ṣaghīr (“the smaller Ibn al-Jazarī”) and the “Seal of the Experts.”

He left behind almost fifty works on the Qurʾānic readings and other fields, many of them considered references. He is considered a node in the transmission of the Qurʾān such that most of the Qurʾānic chains of the region go through him. There are only 25 links between him and the Prophet. He died in 1313H/1895CE at the age of 65. He was blind and known for his tremendous humility and refined character.

Because Muḥammad al-Mutawallī was a prominent and towering figure in the Qurʾānic sciences and the Readings, his Qurʾānic chains are widespread and well-known. However, his link to al-Jamzūrī is less clear. Having been born some twenty years after al-Jamzūrī was last known to be alive, he obviously could not have been a direct student. Who, and how many, were the intermediaries between him and al-Jamzūrī? We simply do not know at present, but as more manuscripts, isnāds and historical research comes to light, we may perhaps one day come to know.

 

Conclusions

The isnād is a distinctive and laudable trait of Muslim scholarship, as observed by Muḥammad b. Ḥātim: “Allah did indeed honor this nation and gave it preeminence with the isnād, which was not part of any other nation in human history.”[7] It serves to provide a medium of connection to our great authors and teachers, and promotes a spirit of continuity and balance in our scholarship across diverse regions and time periods. For some, it is a key part of the divine plan to assure the preservation of this religion. Because of this, the isnād was always a part of our scholarly heritage, affirmed by the broad consensus of Muslim scholars from our earliest times. At the same time, the isnād has also always been subjected to historical scrutiny and verification by a portion of scholars—usually the ḥadīth specialists—who adopted this task in order to ensure the integrity of the Islamic tradition.

And so it is not at all surprising that Tufat al-Afāl has been transmitted in this traditional fashion, and it is also not unusual that many have raised very specific objections to the nature of that transmission. In the final analysis, the chains of Tufat al-Afāl appear to connect to the author through a number of individuals:

  1. Naṣr al-Hūrīnī from al-Jamzūrī
  2. Muṣṭafā al-Mīhī from al-Jamzūrī
  3. Muṣṭafā al-Mīhī from his father ʿAlī al-Mīhī from al-Jamzūrī
  4. Aḥmad al-Mīhī from al-Jamzūrī
  5. Muḥammad al-Mutawallī through his chain to al-Jamzūrī (an intermediary, thus making the chain broken)

Some scholars have considered Naṣr al-Hūrīnī to be the only confirmed student of al-Jamzūrī based upon historical evidence, while others have maintained that the connection through al-Jamzūrī’s teacher or his sons to be equally plausible as well.

In the end, it should be noted that the isnād is primarily a spiritual-academic connection to a text, author or discipline. The comprehension and application of the text is independent of the isnād, although it may certainly be enhanced by it. Indeed most Islamic books and subjects continue to be learned, understood and taught without recourse to the isnād. So why the isnād then? It essentially enhances the learning experience by providing an organic connection to the sources of knowledge and fostering a sense of connectedness to tradition.

For this purpose, in my humble view, all of the chains above are both plausible and acceptable. The foundational era of Islamic scholarship is long gone, as is the task of compiling the Qurʾān and documenting the Prophetic Sunnah. Though the general task of scrutinizing narrations and evidences in order to authenticate them will always continue, Tufat al-Afāl and similar texts deserve a level of laxity above that accorded to the primary sources of the Qurʾān and Sunnah. A majority of our great Imāms even allowed the limited use of Prophetic narrations whose links were found to be weak, so what about texts such as Tufat al-Afāl? The traditional transmission of this particular text has continued to inspire and inform generations of individuals for over two hundred years in their sacred task of reciting Allah’s Book in the proper manner, and there is no reason that should stop today.


 

APPENDIX: My Isnad in Tuḥfat al-Aṭfāl (ARABIC)

الحَمدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ العَالَمِينَ وَ الصَّلَاةُ وَ السَّلَامُ عَلَى أَشرَفِ الأَنبِيَاءِ وَ المُرسَلِينَ سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ وَ عَلَى آلِهِ وَ صَحبِهِ أَجمَعِينَ , أَمَّا بَعدُ

فَيَقُولُ مَن هَمُّهُ مَنزِلَة الخَادِمِ

لِلقُرآنِ وَ سُنَّةِ النِّبِيِّ الفَاضِلِ

وَ يَا لَيتَنِي أَن أكُونَ عَبد اللَّهِ طَالِب عِلمِهِ

فَلَستُ إِلاَّ عُبَيدُ اللَّهِ طُوَيلِبُ الإِسلَامِ

فَإِنِّي تَلَقَّيتُ هَذهِ الـمَنظُومَةَ عَن ثَلَاثَةِ شُيُوخٍ :

فَأَمَّا الأَوَّلُ فَتَلَقَّيتُهَا عَن فَضِيلَةِ الشَّيخِ1 وَلِيد إِدرِيس المَنِيسِي حَفِظَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى  وَ هُوَ عَنِ الشَّيخِ2 مُحَمَّد زُهَير الشَّاوِيش عَنِ الشَّيخِ3 بَدر الدِّين بِن يُوسُف الحَسَنِي عَنِ الشَّيخِ4 إِبرَاهِيم بِن عَلِي بِن حَسَن السِّقَا عَنِ الشَّيخِ5 أَبِي الوَفَا نَصر بِن نَصر الوَفَائِي الهُورِينِي عَن نَاظِمِها الشَّيخ سُلَيمَان بِن حُسَين الجَمزُورِي ، تَغَمَّدَ اللَّهُ الجَمِيعَ بِرَحمَتِهِ ، وَ أَسكَنَهُم فَسِيحَ جَنَّاتِهِ .

وَ قَد تَلَقَّىٰهَا أَيضًا الشَّيخُ1 وَلِيد عَنِ2 الحَسَن بِن مُحَمَّد الصِّدِّيق الغُمَارِي عَن أَخَوَيهِ الشَّيخَينِ3 أَحمَد وَ عَبد اللَّهِ ابنَي مُحَمَّد الصَّدِيق الغُمَارِيِّين عَن4 مُحَمَّد دويدَار الكفرَاوِي عَنِ5 الهُورِينِي عَنِ الجَمزُورِي .

وَ قَد تَلَقَّىٰهَا أَيضًا الشَّيخُ1 وَلِيد عَنِ الشَّيخَةِ2 سَمِيعَة بِنت مُحَمَّد بَكر البِنَاسِي ، وَ هِيَ عَن3 إِبرَاهِيم بِن مُرسِي مُحَمَّد بَكر البِنَاسِي عَن4 غُنَيم بِن مُحَمَّد غُنَيم عَن5 حَسَن بِن مُحَمَّد بُدَير الجُرَيسِي الكَبِير عَن6 مُحَمَّد بِن أَحمَد المُتَوَلِّي ، وَ هُوَ بِسَنَدهِ7 إِلَى الجَمزُورِي، فَلَم أَقِف إِلَى الآن عَلَى إِتِّصَالِهِ .

وَ قَد قَرَأَتهَا الشَّيخَةُ2 سَمِيعَة بِنت مُحَمَّد بَكر البِنَاسِي عَلَى3 مُصطَفَى بِن مَحمُود العَنُوسِي عَن وَالِدهِ4 مَحمُود العَنُوسِي عَن5 يُوسُف عَجُّور عَن6 عَلِي صَقر الجَوهَرِي المَرحُومِي عَن7 مُصطَفَى المِيهِي عَن سُلَيمَان الجَمزُورِي  .

وَ أَمَّا الثَّانِي فقَرَأتُهَا عَلَى الشَّيخِ1 سَعدُ الدِّين رُزَيقَه حَسَنَين ، الَّذِي قَرَأَهَا عَلَى شَيخِهِ2 عَبدُ البَاسِط حَامِد مُحَمَّد (المَشهُور بِعَبدِ البَاسِط هَاشِم) ، وَ هُوَ تَلَقَّىٰهَا عَن3 أَحمَد عَبدُ الغَنِي الأَسيُوطِي عَن4 مَحمُود بِن عُثمَان فَرَّاج عَن5 حَسَن مُحَمَّد بَيُومِي (الشَّهِير بِالكَرَّاك) عَن6  مُحَمَّد سَابِق عَن7 مُحَمَّد خَلِيل المُطَوبِسِي عَن8 عَلِي الحُلو السَّمنُودِي عَن9 أَحمَد بِن مُحَمَّد (المَعرُوف بِسَلَمُونَة) عَن10 سُلَيمَان بِن مُصطَفَى البَيبَانِي عَن11 أَحمَد بِن عَلِي المِيهِي ، وَهُوَ عَن نَاظِمِهَا الجَمزُورِي .

وَ قَد تَلَقَّىٰهَا الشَّيخُ2 عَبدُ البَاسِط هَاشِم أَيضًا عَن3 مَحمُود بِن مُحَمَّد خَبُّوط عَن4 عَبد المَجِيد الأَسيُوطِي عَن5 حَسَن مُحَمَّد بَيُومِي الكَرَّاك بِسَنَدهِ المَذكُورَ6,7,8,9,10,11 .

وَ قَد قَرَأَهَا الشَّيخُ1 سَعدُ الدِّين رزَيقَه حَسَنَين أَيضًا عَلَى الشَّيخِ2 مُحَمَّد عَبد الحَمِيد خَلِيل وَهُوَ قَرَأَهَا عَلَى الشَّيخَةِ3 نَفِيسَة بِنت أَبِي العُلِى بِن أَحمَد مُحَمَّد ضَيفُ اللَّه عَن4 عَبد العَزِيز بِن عَلِي كُحِيل عَن5 مُحَمَّد سَابِق عَن6 مُحَمَّد خَلِيل المُطَوبِسِي عَن7 عَلِي الحُلو السَّمنُودِي عَن8 سُلَيمَان الشَّهدَاوِي عَن9 مُصطَفَى المِيهِي عَن سُلَيمَان الجَمزُورِي .

وَ قَد قَرَأَهَا الشَّيخ1 سَعدُ الدِّين رزَيقَه حَسَنَين أَيضًا عَلَى الشَّيخَة2 سَمِيعَة بِنت مُحَمَّد بَكر البِنَاسِي بِسَنَدِهَا المَذكُورَ3,4,5,6,7 .

وَ أَمَّا الشَّيخِيَ الثَالِثُ ، فَإِنِّي قَد تَلَقَّيتُهَا وَ سَمِعتُهَا عَلَي الشَّيخِ المُقرِئ1 عَلِي بِن مُحَمَّد تَوفِيق النُّحَاس وَ هُوَ عَن وَالِدهِ2 مُحَمَّد تَوفِيق النُّحَاس عَن3 بَخِيت المُطِيعِي عَن4 عَبد الرَّحمَن الشَّربِينِي وَ4 حَسَن الطَّوِيل وَ4 مُحَمَّد البَسيُونِي ، وَ هَؤُلَاءِ الثَّلاَثَة عَن5 إِبرَاهِيم السِّقَا عَن6 نَصر الهُورِينِي عَن سُلَيمَان الجَمزُورِي  .

وَ تَلَقَى المَنظُومَةَ أَيضًا3 بَخِيت المُطِيعِي مُبَاشَرَةً عَن4 إِبرَاهِيم السِّقَا عَن5 نَصر الهُورِينِي عَن الجَمزُورِي .

APPENDIX: My Isnad in Tuḥfat al-Aṭfāl (ENGLISH)

All praise is for Allah the Lord of the worlds, and peace and blessings upon the noblest of the prophets and messengers, our master Muḥammad, and upon his family and companions.

I am one who aspires to the station of service

To the Qurʼān and the way of the Noble Prophet

How I wish to be a slave to Allah, to His knowledge a true disciple

But all I am: to Him a meager servant, to Islam a lowly pupil

I testify that I received this text from three teachers:

As for the first, I received it from the noble Shaykh Dr. Waleed Edrees Meneese of Minnesota, who received it from Shaykh Zuhayr al-Shawīsh from Badr al-Dīn b. Yūsuf al-Ḥasanī from Ibrāhīm b. ʿAlī b. Ḥasan al-Siqqāʾ from Abuʾl-Wafāʾ Naṣr b. Naṣr al-Wafāʾī al-Hūrīnī from the esteemed author of the text Sulaymān b. Ḥusayn al-Jamzūrī, may Allah cover all with His mercy and grant them dwelling in His expansive gardens.

Dr. Waleed Edrees Meneese also received the text from Shaykh al-Ḥasan b. Muḥammad al-Ṣiddīq al-Ghumārī who in turn receive it from his two brothers Aḥmad and ʿAbdullah b. Muḥammad al-Ṣiddīq al-Ghumārī from Muḥammad Duwīdār al-Kafrāwī from al-Hūrīnī from al-Jamzūrī.

Dr. Waleed Edrees Meneese also received the text from Shaykha Samīʿah bint Muḥammad Bakr al-Bināsī who read it to Ibrāhīm b. Mursī Muḥammad Bakr al-Bināsī who received it from Ghunaym b. Muḥammad Ghunaym from Ḥasan b. Muḥammad Budayr al-Juraysī al-Kabīr from Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Mutawallī with his chain to Sulaymān b. Ḥusayn al-Jamzūrī, and to date, I have not come across this full and complete chain.

Shaykha Samīʿah bint Muḥammad Bakr al-Bināsī also read the text to Muṣṭafā b. Maḥmūd al-ʿAnūsī who received it from his father Maḥmūd al-ʿAnūsī from Yūsuf ʿAjjūr from ʿAlī Ṣaqr al-Jawharī al-Marḥūmī from Muṣṭafā al-Mīhī from Sulaymān al-Jamzūrī.

As for my second teacher, I read the text to Shaykh Saʿd al-Dīn Razaiqah Ḥasanayn, who read it to his teacher Shaykh ʿAbd al-Bāsiṭ Ḥāmid Muḥammad—more popularly known as ʿAbd al-Bāsiṭ Ḥāshim, who received it from his teacher Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Ghanī al-Asyūṭī from Maḥmūd b. Uthmān Farrāj from Ḥasan Muḥammad Bayūmī al-Karrāk from Muḥammad Sābiq from Muḥammad Khalīl al-Maṭūbisī from ʿAlī al-Samnūdī from Aḥmad b. Muḥammad Salamūnah from Sulaymān b. Muṣṭafā al-Baybānī from Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Mīhī from his student Sulaymān b. Ḥusayn al-Jamzūrī.

Shaykh ʿAbd al-Bāsiṭ Ḥāshim also received the text from Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad Khabbūṭ from ʿAbd al-Majīd al-Asyūṭī from Ḥasan Bayūmī al-Karrāk with his above chain to the author.

Shaykh Saʿd al-Dīn Razaiqah Ḥasanayn also read the text to Shaykh Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Khalīl from Shaykha Nafīsah bint Abiʾl-ʿUlā b. Aḥmad Muḥammad Ḍayfullah from ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. ʿAlī Kuḥīl from Muḥammad Sābiq from Muḥammad Khalīl al-Maṭūbisī from ʿAlī al-Samnūdī from Sulaymān al-Shahdāwī from Muṣṭafā al-Mīhī from Sulaymān al-Jamzūrī.

Shaykh Saʿd al-Dīn Razaiqah Ḥasanayn also read the text to Shaykha Samīʿah bint Muḥammad Bakr al-Bināsī whose chain is already listed above.

As for my third teacher, I received the text from, and read it to Shaykh ʿAlī b. Muḥammad Tawfīq al-Nuḥās who received it from his father Muḥammad Tawfīq al-Nuḥās from Bakhīt al-Muṭīʿī from ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Sharbīnī and Ḥasan al-Ṭawīl and Muḥammad al-Basyūnī, and the three of them from Ibrāhīm al-Siqā from Naṣr al-Hūrīnī from Sulaymān al-Jamzūrī. Bakhīt al-Muṭīʿī also received the text directly from Naṣr al-Hūrīnī who received it from Sulaymān al-Jamzūrī.


[1] In Arabic the term is usually as follows: [بسنده إلى الجمزوري].

[2] For this section, I have relied on the various texts, manuscripts and isnāds at my disposal, as well as the thorough research of Shaykh Muṣṭafā Shaʿban (available at http://www.ahlalhdeeth.com/vb/showthread.php?t=284430), who was gracious enough to receive my correspondence and respond to some of my inquiries.

[4] Pg. 16, Muḥammad al-Meehī al-Aḥmadī, Fatḥ al-Malik al-Mutaʻāl fī Sharḥ Tuḥfah al-Aṭfāl. Maktabah Awlād al-Shaykh a l-Turāth, Egypt. 1418. The Arabic text is as follows: [الأخ الصالح و المتقن الفالح المحفوف بعناية المعيد المبدي مولانا الشيخ سليمان الأفندي].

[5] pg. 18, Sulaymān al-Jamzūrī, Fat al-Aqfāl bi Shar Tufat al-Afāl.The College of Qurʾānic Studies, Babylon University, Iraq. 2010. The Arabic text is as follows: [و جعلت أصله شرح ولد شيخنا الشيخ محمد الميهي نظر الله إلينا و إليه ، واعتمدت فيما تركته من هذا الشرح عليه لأني اقتصرتُ فيه على مجرد سرد الأحكام مريداً بذلك بلوغ المرام . . .].

[6] Pg. 140, Naṣr al-Hūrīnī, al-Maṭāliʿ al-Naṣriyyah. Resalah Publishers: Beirut, Lebanon. 1422/2001.

[7] Pg. 84, ḥadīth no.71, al-Khaṭīb al-Baghdādī, Sharaf Aṣḥāb al-Ḥadīth. Maktabah Ibn Taymiyyah. Cairo, Egypt. 1996. The chain of the narration to Muḥammad b. Ḥātim is authenticated by ʿAmr ʿAbd al-Munʿim Salīm, and its Arabic text is as follows: [إن الله قد أكرم هذه الأمة وشرفها وفضلها بالإسناد ، وليس لأحد من الأمم كلها قديمها وحديثها إسناد].

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